VIT – Verim İnşaat Turizm Ltd.

Madex® against Codling Moth

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is the most destructive pest in apple and pear production world wide. Other crops attacked by the codling moths are quinces, walnuts, apricots, peaches, almonds, kakis, medlars and oranges. The damage is caused by the larvae entering the fruit and penetrating to the core.

MADEX is a biological insecticide containing the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) as the active ingredient, which is a natural occurring pathogen of the codling moth. Andermatt BIOCONTROL AG is successfully producing MADEX since many years. MADEX is registered and distributed in many countries, including Turkey, all around the world.

Biological Control of Codling Moth

Depending on geographical location 1 to 3 generations are produced annually. The larvae hibernate in impermeable silk-lined cells (cocoons) usually under the bark at the base of the trunk. In spring they pupate and complete their development. Within 3 to 4 weeks the moths appear. They can be seen flying around the fruits when evening temperatures rise above 18 °C. From an exposed position on a twig, the females produce pheromones to attract the males. After copulation a female can oviposit up to 300 eggs. The eggs of the first generation are usually deposited on the leaves, while later egg generations are deposited on the fruits.

Within 7 to 15 days the eggs develop and the larvae appear. The young larvae crawl in search of suitable fruits to complete their development. The larvae chew their way into the fruits, usually entering at contact points between fruits, by the stalk end or by the blossom end. Their spiral feeding tunnel finally leads towards the core. Frass is pushed out through the bore hole.

Codling moth populations are naturally regulated by various mechanisms. On the one hand birds and other bigger animals feed on the caterpillars and moths, while on the other hand different diseases caused by natural occuring microorganisms or viruses help prevent a population explosion.

About Madex®

MADEX is a biological insecticide containing CpGV, The formulation only contains organic additives; therefore the application of MADEX produces no chemical residues in the food chain and can be used in organic farming. Apart from the viruses, the formulation contains also larval bodies and diet residues, which improves the protection from UV radiation and consequently the lifespan of the viruses in the environment. As CpGV is highly specific to Cydia pomonella and no beneficial organisms are affected, the use of MADEX is environmentally safe.

Madex® Application Strategies

The precise timing of the first application of MADEX against the young larvae of the first generation is a crucial factor for a successful damage control. For the biological control of the codling moth the first virus application must take place just before the first larvae hatch from the eggs. The swarming of the adult moth can be monitored with pheromone traps. As soon as the evening temperatures (at 9 pm) are >18°C, the females start with oviposition. From this time point, the hatching can be calculated by the sum of day degrees (DD). The maturation of the eggs usually takes 90 DD. We recommend the first MADEX application already after 86 DD (see Box 1).

The first MADEX application easily calculated!
Use the sum of day degrees (DD), which lay above the zero point of development (for codling moth: 10°C):
DD = (Tmax + Tmin / 2) - 10°C
Example:
The daily temperature maximum is 25°C and the minimal temperature is 15°C. Therefore:
DD = (25°C + 15°C / 2) - 10°C = 10°C.

The first MADEX application is indicated when the sum of DD after oviposition reaches 86 DD. In this example with an average DD of 10°C, MADEX should be applied after 8 to 9 days. The higher the average day temperature, the earlier MADEX has to be applied.

Madex®'s Application Timing

The standard dosage of MADEX is 100 ml per hectare. It is recommended to repeat the application after 8 days of sunshine. Two cloudy or partially sunny days count as one day of full sunshine. Usually 3 applications per generation are necessary. Of course, application rate and strategies can be adapted to the specific condition of pest pressure and to the use of other control measures. At lower pest pressure the second and following applications can be sprayed with a lower concentration of MADEX or bigger intervals. Nevertheless, the first application at the standard application of 100 ml per hectare will give the best effect for damage control

Need more information? Then checkout these files:
PDF File MADEX: General Information (298 KB)

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